Most Important JavaScript Interview Questions and concept

  • JavaScript Truthy Value and Falsy Value

Truthy or falsy value is a value that converted into a boolean. When we cast it into boolean. Boolean context means that when we write if-else condition.

all values are true unless they are defined as falsy.

Example for falsy value:

false , 0 , -0 , 0n , "" , null , undefined , and NaN

Functional programming produces programs by composing mathematical functions and avoids shared state & mutable data. Lisp (specified in 1958) was among the first languages to support functional programming, and was heavily inspired by lambda calculus. Lisp and many Lisp family languages are still in common use today.

Functional programming is an essential concept in JavaScript (one of the two pillars of JavaScript). Several common functional utilities were added to JavaScript in ES5.

Good to hear:

  • Pure functions / function purity.
  • Avoid side-effects.
  • Simple function composition.
  • Examples of functional languages: Lisp, ML, Haskell, Erlang, Clojure, Elm, F Sharp, OCaml, etc…
  • Mention of features that support FP: first-class functions, higher order functions, functions as arguments/values.

When is prototypal inheritance an appropriate choice?

There is more than one type of prototypal inheritance:

  • Delegation (i.e., the prototype chain).
  • Concatenative (i.e. mixins, `Object.assign()`).
  • Functional (Not to be confused with functional programming. A function used to create a closure for private state/encapsulation).

Each type of prototypal inheritance has its own set of use-cases, but all of them are equally useful in their ability to enable composition, which creates has-a or uses-a or can-do relationships as opposed to the is-a relationship created with class inheritance.

Good to hear:

  • In situations where modules or functional programming don’t provide an obvious solution.
  • When you need to compose objects from multiple sources.
  • Any time you need inheritance.

What is asynchronous programming, and why is it important in JavaScript?

Synchronous programming means that, barring conditionals and function calls, code is executed sequentially from top-to-bottom, blocking on long-running tasks such as network requests and disk I/O.

Asynchronous programming means that the engine runs in an event loop. When a blocking operation is needed, the request is started, and the code keeps running without blocking for the result. When the response is ready, an interrupt is fired, which causes an event handler to be run, where the control flow continues. In this way, a single program thread can handle many concurrent operations.

User interfaces are asynchronous by nature, and spend most of their time waiting for user input to interrupt the event loop and trigger event handlers.

Node is asynchronous by default, meaning that the server works in much the same way, waiting in a loop for a network request, and accepting more incoming requests while the first one is being handled.

This is important in JavaScript, because it is a very natural fit for user interface code, and very beneficial to performance on the server.

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